Monday, November 22, 2010

सम्बन्ध बोधक

Postposition(सम्बन्ध बोधक)

Postposition in Hindi
The prepositional words in English comes before the noun/pronoun but in Hindi, these words come behind or post the noun/pronoun so these are postposition rather than preposition.
Example :-
(1) यात्री मन्दिर की ओर जा रहे थे। Yatri madir ki aur ja rahe the. ( The traveller were going toward the temple.)
(2) वह उल्टे मुझे ही डाँटने लगा।Veh ulte mujhe hi datne laga. (He was instead scolding me. )
(3) श्री राम सीता के बिना अयोध्या कैसे जाते? Shri Ram Sita ke bina Aayodha kese jate. (How shri Ram would have gone without Sita.)
(4) पिताजी घर के अन्दर हैं। Pitaji ghar ke aandar hain. (The father is inside home.)
(5) प्यास के मारे घोड़े का बुरा हाल था। Pyas ke mare ghode ka bura hal tha. ( The horse was feeling very bad because of the thirst.)
(6) नेता जी के आगे कुछ व्यक्ति खड़े थे। Netaji ke aage kuch vyati khade the. (Some people were standing before the leader.)
(7) गोली के घावों के कारण उसका बुरा हाल था। Goli ke ghavo ke karan uska bura hal tha. (He was feeling bad because of the shots wounds.)

Here, the underlined words are postposition(preposition in English). If you have a look, you will find that all these words are behind the noun(s)/pronoun(s).
The postposition in Hindi are of 7 types:
1.कालबोधक (time) :- आगे(ahead), पीछे(behind), पूर्व(before), बाद(after), पष्चात(after), पहले(before)
2.स्थानाबोधक (place) :- ऊपर(above), नीचे(below), बाहर(outside), भीतर(inside), पास(near), निकट(near), दूर(far)
3.दिषा बोधक(direction) :- सामने(in front), ओर(toward), तरफ(toward), आर-पार(across), आस-पास(nearby)
4.साधन बोधक(medium) :- द्वारा(through), बलबूते(through), कारण (because), मारे(for), हेतु (for), जरिए(through), सहारे(with the help)
5.समता बोधक(capacity) :- समान(equal), तरह (likewise), भांति(likewise), बराबर(equal), योग्य(suitable),अनुरूप (suitable), ऐसा (like/likewise), जैसा (likewise)
6.विरोध बोधक(opposition) :- विपरीत (opposite), उल्टा (opoosite), खिलाफ (opposed), विरूद्ध (opposed)
7.अतिरिक्त बोधक(complementary) :- बगैर (without), बदले (in return of), अलावा (without) , बिना (without), जगह (position,place), अपेक्षा (ignore) , सामने(in front), आगे (ahead)

Difference between postposition and adverb in Hindi : Many word like जैसे- आगे-पीछे, बाहर, भीतर, सामने, यहॉ ( कालबोधक (time) & स्थानाबोधक (place) postpositional words are used in postposition as well as adverb but there are difference between these two.
If these word comes with verb and tell the quality of verb that theses are adverb and if these words comes with noun/pronoun they are postpositional words.
Example :-
Used as Adverb(क्रिया विषेशण)

1. बच्चे ऊपर गए हैं। Bacche uppar gaye hain. (The children has gone upstair)
2. पहले यह काम करों। Pehle yeh kam karo. (First do this work)
3. वह कब आया था?  Veh kab aaya tha? (When did he come)

Used as Postposition (सम्बन्ध बोधक )
1. मैंने बच्चों को ऊपर भेजा है। Meine baccho ko uppar bheja hai. (I sent the kids to upstair)
2. यह काम करने से पहले कुछ खा लो। Yeh kam karne se pehle kuch kha lo. (Eat something before doing this work)
3. वह कब से आया हुआ है। Veh kab se aaya hua hai. (Since when he came)

If the words comes with suffixes, they would be pospositional word as 1,2,3 sentences when words are used as postpositional words. In 1st, we see “को”. In 2nd and 3rd, we see “से” used with postpositional words.

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